Who is my audience?
Thoughtful target analysis:


The failure of more than every eighth start-up business is because of not having analyzed the target audience. I guess, the same rules can be applied on my MA project.


Unfortunately, my app is not intended to be for a specific niche audience which makes it harder for me to define a specific target. Cooking can be enjoyed and done by basically everyone worldwide. However, some specifications can be found below.


  • young and active
  • app and smartphone usersAccording to The Statistics Portal (2016) 25-54 year old people use the highest number of apps while 18-24 year olds spend the most time on using apps. 18-45 year olds appear to be the most likeliest persons to use apps. There are significantly less users of apps aged 55+.

    The app should be launched on 16 October (World Food Day) in 2020 or 2021. According to Macworld’s article “iPhone 8 and beyond” that has been released just 10 days ago, in 4-5 years time, technology will be most likely to realize all features I incorporated in the app (Macworld, 2016). In case one or more of them won’t, it is not a big deal as my project is fictitious anyways and my challenge about this project is to design a recipe app for the future rather than inventing the future phone.

  • Age:
    The War Generation (1920-1940) was born in times where it was crucial to cook.
    – Little money (cooking is cheap)
    – No fastfood, microwaves, ready meals or fridgesGeneration X (1950-1970) is formed by the children of the previous generation follows this ideal.
    – help in house holds
    – gain house holding skills
    – big shift in kitchen equipment
    – first forms of ready meals and fast food

    Generation Y (1980-1990) often enjoyed family dinners as long as living at their parents homes. Beginning from cooking for oneself, Gen Y starts to cook less.
    – chance to spend less time on cooking
    – decreasing importance of cooking
    – very broad range of fastfood and ready meals
    – increasing pickiness
    – individual intake of food

    Generation Z (2000-2010) are the younger siblings of Gen Y. They are not yet cookers as they are now between 6 and 16 years old. In 4-5 years time the earlier members of this generation are my target as well as soon as the app is released.
    – as soon as the app will be on the market for e.g. 2 years some of this generation are already 23 and my target audience as well.
    – cooking will be very little important for them
    – they shape trends and will develop the new society

    My app will be designed especially for the border generation between Y and Z (1990- 2000) who grew up with the use of media and technology and where it is all about communication. People between 20-30 years old in 2020.
    My aim is to particularly encourage those people to value having dinner as a social activity within a group of friends or family and to appreciate the highly sensual act of cooking.

    They will be likely to use it if it communicates right as they grew up by using technological means. Also for the former generations it should be applicable, as people up to 54 years are very likely to use apps. However, this generation seems to appreciate cooking anyways more than the next ones do.

    The active and natural use of technology is representative for Generation Z. Their ability to multitask (also Gen Y) becomes more and more and they use technological means as an addition of our bodies to increase productiveness.
    Still, they are really concerned to develop their personalities and bodies. This is why healthy food as well as food, diet and nutrition trends are set by them but more on this topic later.
    (ZDnet, 2016)

  • Could result in later cooking
    People are moving out later than they did in former times.
    89% of 18-19 year olds still live at parent’s place (Generation before: 71%)
    46% of 24-25 year olds still live at parent’s place
    20% of 26-27 year olds still live at parent’s place
    12% of 27-30 year olds still live at parent’s place
    Possible Reasons:
    – less money because of studying
    – less authority of parents
    – better relationship between children and parents (SpiegelOnline, 2016)
  • Spontaneous cookers
    – when you invite people for a dinner party you will think about the dish first and then buy the ingredients (pork roast, big lasagna for sharing, etc.)
    – app is for the other way round: people can buy what is cheap, available or in season
    – according to this, recipes are suggested to you
    – for planned cookers, the BROWSE section of the app is working too
  • Cookers of all levels
    – Amateurs
    – Quite experienced
    – Pros
    – The self-evaluation / test at the beginning of the app will find out your current status and adjust the recipe instructions to you depending on that level
    – If you develop your skills, just change your status in the settings menu
  • Singles and Families
    – The app helps to decide what to cook for singles, students, families, etc.
    Applicable for:
    – Cooking for oneself
    – Cooking for oneself and a partner
    – Cooking for a whole family
    – Cooking for guests
  • Health and body aware
    – Families might be aware of benefits of dinner as a social activity within the family
    – People who care about their health and the health of their family would likely cook
    (fast food and ready meals can cause diabetes, obesity and are full of hidden artificials, sugar, fat and aromas)
  • Cost aware
    – dining everyday out is expensive
    – ready meals and fast food for a whole family are expensive
    – cooking can be done really chep
  • Non-cookers
    – People love to buy cookbooks even if they cook less
    – Chunk of that buyers only likes to see and watch through cookbooks even if they won’t cook
    – Non-cookers are highly welcome to just enjoy the functions and postings
  • Technology lovers
    – It seems that some people love to test everything that is new (trend detectors, trend followers)
    – If the recipe app is the first to be released that incorporates all those new technologies (hologram) also non-cookers and people who won’t be potential cooking app users could be tempted to download and test the app.
  • Unique / Personalized
    – Having very unique belongings and personalized stuff seems to attract to people
    – Hipster trend movement emerged from this idea
    – e.g. personalized playlists on Spotify, uniquely chosen wine on Vinome, etc.
  • Curiousity
    – There is passion in people to find out about their past (Deseretnews, 2016)
    – To identify oneself it is helpful to know about the past (Ancestors, Family History)
    – Inherent curiosity for family, ancestors and roots
    – Ancestor research business is booming (FindmyPast, Ancestry, etc.)
    – Momondo offers now a DNA test to help find out about people’s past and to encourage them to travel to those countries (LetsOpenOurWorld, 2016)
  • Nutritional interested
    – the app tells you exactly how what you need and how much you consumed
    – helps to keep track
    – if I make my mom’s well tried Spaghetti Bolognese quite often, I would be actually really interested which nutritional facts and calories it incorporates: app calculates for you when you scan it for producing a hologram
  • Global
    – due to ongoing globalization and increasing spread of English (spread by internet) the first launch of the app will be exclusively in English
    – easier to share recipes to a worldwide audience
    – you can easily cook a recipe uploaded by an Italian user without speaking the language
    – in 2020/2021 it is likely that our phones will translate automatically anyways
    – 3rd world countries might not be able to access smartphones
  • Trend Lovers
    – Food trends occured as a result of increasing health- and bodyawareness
    – low-carb, vegetarian, vegan, gluten free, lactose-free, dairy free, superfoods, etc.
    – trends will occur within the CHARTS section of the app
    – trend lovers might need to keep track of it
    – could stimulate and boost value and popularity of the app
  • Allergies
    – app will be particularly helpful for people with diets, food restrictions (religion), allergies, pickiness (increasing), intolerances and ethical food relinquishes
  • Culturally interested
    – globalisation and travel trend might result in openness, better understanding and curiosity for other countries
    – local cuisine is a big part of a culture
  • Niche
    – very marginally, the app will fill some niche gaps: personal and unshared recipe treasures could be communicated
    – very individual and authentic (family) recipes
    – chef cooks, bloggers, magazines etc. bring recipes to the people (often similar) – contrarily, those self invented or family history based recipes will be “new”EXCLUDING: 
  • Data awareness
    The mandatory undertaking of a DNA test in the beginning to set up each users profile excludes data concerned people.
    – Additional info brochure inside the DNA kit will inform about the responsible usage of data
    – When being really data sharing concerned, the app might not be applicable
    – In the following few years, this sort of things will become more common as companies are starting to use it more frequently right now (, momondo)


What are my goals?  
– to encourage people to value cooking as a multi-sensual, stress reliefing activity that incorporates a lot of health benefits and to enjoy dinner as a social activity within a family
– aims to counteract the ongoing decrease in cooking (especially in future times)
– excite people to share valuable content online
– communicate and spread bits of tradition and culture via delightful, sensual means
– connect people who have passion for food, taste, flavour and it’s preparation
– create an all-rounder cooking app (nutrition, communication, sharing, dynamic, calorie count, individual personality check, recipes, instructions, inspiration)
– alternative and replacement of too many and too chaotic recipe apps with shallow functions and content and complicated interfaces

– Transparent: no mysteries with food
– Authentic: authentic, local recipes posted by real users around the world
– Appetising: design should support aim
 Innvoative / futuristic: Even when it feels futuristic now, when the app would be released it would be time accurate rather than futuristic. Still, it should be the first app to incorporate futuristic functions like holograms, scent, etc. which makes it very innovative and slightly futuristic even then
– Complex, yet simple: Lots of functions and broad range of usability that should be packed in a simple, comprehensible and user friendly interface that works self explanatory. To fulfill this task would probably work best when there is a lot of depths added to the basic functions/interface.
– Down-to-earth: There shouldn’t be a hierarchy where top cooking chefs, or experienced down-to-earth chefs like Jamie Oliver provide tips and tricks to tell you how to cook. There should be no lecturing from a top-position (as long as it does not establish itself via the app). Everyone has to build his way up from the very bottom with his own success recipe.
It should be a big community of very mixed people. Basic cookers can learn from better cookers. Some people will be quietly in the background browsing through recipes and giving a like here and there while others will establish to top-followed and lots of recipe sharing app-internal superstars.




The Statistics Portal (2016) Number of mobile app users in the United Kingdom (UK) from 3rd quarter 2013 to 2nd quarter 2016, by age. Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2016).

Macworld (2016) iPhone 8 and beyond: Future smartphone developments, from graphene and lithium-air batteries to holograms, OLED and motion charging | ‘Super cycle’ iPhone 8 to follow ‘muted’ iPhone 7 | Predictions for iPhone 7s, iPhone 8 & more. Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2016).

ZDnet (2016) Defining the ‘iGeneration’: Not just a geeky bunch of kids. Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2016).

Deseretnews (2016) A glimpse into the thriving business of family history. Available at: (Accessed: 10 March 2016).

LetsOpenOurWorld (2016) momondo – The DNA Journey. Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2016).

SpiegelOnline (2016) Späte Nestflucht: Für immer bei Mutti. Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2016).



Tutorial 27.6.16

with Margot.


I used this session with Margot to get some help with the naming of my project, in particular.
Furthermore, I wanted to get some infos about how to best present an app, and to ask if Margot would have some tipps or experience in app design or if she could provide any helpful sources or inspiration for great app designs or presentation.



    She told me that there are already fridges with an integrated screen so it know about your food stock.
    Me: I actually thought about inventing/designing a fridge device that you can put in your fridge and as it will be linked to an accompanying app it could automatically update your food content. Due to the fact that my app will be designed for the future I think it is more plausible if the app is clever enough to calculate the difference each time you scan your fridge – so I will focus on the app rather than additional devices.
  • Cooking level
    Margot mentioned that she would not provide the cooking instructions step by step. She always likes to read a recipe in whole – so do I.
    She would rather suggest that when you are setting up your profile, you can tell which cooking level you are in. (My thought: Maybe if you don’t know your cooking level then you can make  a short test to be categorized). Depending on this category, you will get either step by step instructions, or more general instructions. E.g.:

    Level 1 (Starter):
    1. Put 3l of water in a pot and heat the stove.
    2. Salt it
    3. Bring it to boiling temperature which you see as soon as bubbles occur.
    4. Put in the noodles
    5. Cook 4-5 minutes

    Level 2 (Medium):
    1. Put water in a pot, salt it and bring it to boil.
    2. As soon as it boils, add the noodles.
    3. Cook the noodles 4-5 minutes

    Level 3 (Chef cook):
    1. Cook the noodles in salted water.

    I love that idea and will definitely implement it.

  • White typeface:
    Margot also mentioned to be careful with the use of a white typeface:
    – there has to be good contrast to make it good in legibility
    – when using white type on black, it seems smaller and needs to be enlarged
  • Phone off the edge:
    I showed Margot a picture of a phone where the screen runs off the edge. She liked it and said it would support the futuristic feeling that I want to convey. She would definitely give it a go (Fig. 1)

    Bildschirmfoto 2016-06-27 um 15.51.35
    Fig. 1
  • Presentation:
    In terms of presenting the app in the very end, she said it could be helpful for me to present it like this (Fig. 2) to explain it’s functions. And to present it like this (Fig. 3) to show the finished app with the design.

    For the presentation she also mentioned that it could look cool to present it like (Fig. 3) but instead of using the plants I could just go for almonds or other foods.

    She also said it would be cool if I could incorporate a video but it could be really time consuming for me.

    Margot mentioned that she actually doesn’t mind the name “Tempt it”. The longer we talked about it, the more she also seemed to get the feeling that there could be a better and more accurate term than Tempt it. Her help to give me new bits of thought for the naming part was really really great!

    Tempt it: It’s not wrong but there could be something better. Tempt it could link too much to a dating app or a sexual feel in combination with the lips shape.

    Youm:  –  Might sound a little too Thai or Asian
    – Also it is not only about you, but also cooking or dining  as a social activity

    New thoughts:
    Bring people together with cooking and dining
    Family and Friends
    Share – combines that you share food with others and your recipes with the world
    Everyday life 
    Cook it
    Transparency: everything that is mysterious is very bad in terms of food. Noone likes mysterious ingredients or methods – the better you know about what is in your food, who makes your food and where it comes from – the better it is.
    • Food intolerances: this is linked to the previous point. The more transparent, the better.

    Probably the most helpful tip from this session was to tell me again that in order to find a name, it is crucial to know about the target. So I should really find out about them. She said she feels that it could be applicable specifically for a young and active target.

    To help me find a name she encouraged me to do a QUICK survey. Margot thinks surveys can be really time consuming with little results (compared to professional surveys). So she suggested to just ask some people about the first word that comes to their mind when they think about cooking. I love that idea.


Fig. 1: Macworld (2016) iPhone 8 and beyond: Future smartphone developments, from graphene and lithium-air batteries to holograms, OLED and motion charging | ‘Super cycle’ iPhone 8 to follow ‘muted’ iPhone 7 | Predictions for iPhone 7s, iPhone 8 & more. Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2016).

Fig. 2-3: Pinterest (2016) Inspiration Project. Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2016).


Interface check

To not run the risk of making compromises to the goods of design, or to make decision forced for the needs of design, I firstly set up the whole app in black and white – just making the content.

This working method should ensure that the app interface would work, even when limited to it’s most basic design. I sometimes adjust the content so it fits to what I need for my design.
This time, however, it is crucial for my project that the app itself works nicely. It will be really complex – which is fine. Still, the user should not have the feeling it is too complex, confusing or complicated. It should be simple and easy to handle. To find the perfect ratio between these two characteristics, I aim to add depth to the basic interface.


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My first tries (seems like a long way to go):

New Name


I really understand what Dick criticized about the last name of the project “Tempt it”.
If my concept is to give people something they feel tempted for, than it is a little too banal and too straight forward to also call it tempted / tempt it.
So I changed the name. Please find the process of finding a name below.


The most promising and eventually best name is


To bring in the personalization part that is crucial in my project and one of the most important features of the app (DNA kit, personal food profile, maybe personalized logo, …) I felt like playing with the word YOU is appropriate. Combining it with yum or yummy makes the logical connection to food and recipes.




Tutorial 21.6.16


Presentation Slides to show and talk about my idea:

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Feedback Dick:

Food Quality Scanner:
Dick was thinking about if it would be beneficial for my app to also include a scanner for food, that knows about the quality. So you could scan an orange when going shopping or being on a market, and the app can find out how old the orange is and if it is good quality. For instance, tomatoes can look tasty and red from outside but are tasting badly.

+ The app could automatically check the food and label the food in good, medium and bad for instance. Would be a nice additional feature.

– Maybe it’s just an additional feature that makes it over complex. Too many functions could get complicated.
– It moves away to far future as a food recognizer that scans the food and knows it’s quality is something that is not planned or developed in the near future as it looks like.


He also mentioned that the name “Tempt it” is not particularly good. It is gimmick and draws on people’s attention but doesn’t have a good reason to do so.
It should be a little more cautions. Craving is also the wrong word as it is too strong.

I think he is right and it really could need a better name. I was not too confident and sure about it anyways. However, it functioned as a starting point and I can build on it.


The project is developing well. I think Dick can see that I have fun working on it.

Future iPhones

When will Apple launch the iPhone 8, and how different will it be from today’s smartphones? What about the new smartphones Apple launches in 2020 and beyond?

Here at Macworld we spend a lot of time wondering about the next generation of Apple devices (and if you share our curiosity, take a look at our iPhone 7iPad mini 5iPad Pro 2 and Apple Watch 2 preview articles). But sometimes it pays to take a step back and think about the longer term, and the bigger picture. Where is technology going? What does the future hold? And what will Apple’s smartphones look like in 2018, in 2020, in 2030 and beyond?

In this article we discuss some of the routes that smartphone technology could take in the coming years, starting with the iPhone 7s and the iPhone 8, which by current trends ought to appear in 2017 and 2018. As we move further into the future our predictions will by necessity become more and more speculative, and many of these paths will no doubt turn out to be blind alleys. But we’re happy to put on our future goggles and make some predictions about trends we’re expecting in the next few years. If you want to know what kind of iPhone you’ll be brandishing in the future, read on.


iPhone 8 and beyond: Muted iPhone 7 and innovative iPhone 8

There’s a growing sense that at the end of 2016 Apple’s iPhone sales will again disappoint (on a relative scale, of course – it’ll still outsell its main rivals many times over) because the iPhone 7 is set for a limited set of updates and new features. But everything will change in 2017, when the iPhone 8 blows us all away with a wide and radical range of enhancements.

Making predictions about the upcoming performance of Apple stock, analysts at Credit Suisse have forecast that the iPhone 8, to be released on the iPhone’s 10-year anniversary in 2017 (skipping the ‘S’ generation in recognition of its major updates) will feature “significant innovations” such as a full-glass OLED screen, new and upgraded haptic feedback features, wireless charging and numerous major specs improvements including the camera and processor.

iPhone 8 and beyond

Kulbinder Garcha, one of the company’s analysts, was sufficiently confident about the iPhone 8’s performance to predict sales of 250 million units in fiscal 2018 (despite launching in the calendar year 2017, the iPhone 8’s sales will be reported in 2018), compared to 215 million in 2017.

Garcha may be confident, but we’re not so sure. Going three years between substantive updates to what remains by far its most profitable line in order to make a big launch match a big anniversary feels like a strange and risky strategy for Apple (we don’t subscribe to Nikkei’s theory that the company will follow a three-year cycle from now on), and with the Android sector pushing boundaries in a lot of ways this would inevitably result in accusations of stagnation – even more so than now.

iPhone 8 and beyond: When will the iPhone 7s and the iPhone 8 come out?

Before we think about new features you should expect in the iPhones of the future, let’s talk about the likely release date schedule. We expect Apple’s next batch of smartphones, the iPhone 7 and the iPhone 7 Plus, to launch in the autumn of 2016: most likely September 2017.

After that point it gets harder to predict. Based on the past few years of Apple launches, the generation after that should be an S update: the iPhone 7s and the iPhone 7s Plus, launched together in autumn 2017 (with the potential of an iPhone SE 2 in spring of 2017, or moved back to launch with them in the autumn). The iPhone 8 – as well as the iPhone 8 Plus – would then finally be unveiled in September 2018.

The end of the iPhone ‘S’ convention

But it’s possible that Apple won’t continue the S generation strategy for much longer. Many of us have pointed out that it’s a risky policy, tacitly acknowledging that iPhone generations alternate between major and minor updates – when the average user hears that the new iPhone hasn’t even been considered worthy of a full version number upgrade, how likely are they to crack open the old wallet?

On this principle, therefore, we could see the iPhone 7 in autumn 2016 and the iPhone 8 the year after. At this point, nobody knows – but as soon as we hear more, we’ll update this article.

Now, what new features and tech developments can we expect in the next few generations of Apple smartphone?

iPhone 8 and beyond: Battery & power developments

Again and again the UK Tech Weekly Podcast returns to the topic of ‘peak smartphone’: the idea that the smartphone’s golden period of rapid technological advances and wide experiential differences (between one generation and the next, or between one manufacturer and another) is now over. The smartphone has become commoditised, and there are only small, iterative differences between the phone that just launched and the one you bought last year – hence less incentive to upgrade. Smartphones are now essentially ‘good enough’.

iPhone 8 rumours & patents: Battery life

Well, maybe. Perhaps the greatest potential growth area – yet, for various counterintuitive reasons, one of the most neglected thus far – is battery life. Battery tech keeps getting better, but smartphone makers (and Apple is guilty of this more than almost anyone) keep cramming in higher-res screens and higher-power processors that use up the extra power just as quickly; or they select a slimmer albeit more efficient battery cell so they can say the phone is thinner than ever before, with the same effect.

In the next few years, we suspect, battery life is going to become more of a priority for phone makers and consumers. Partly this is because phones are now about as slim and fast as anyone could ever want; but partly it’s because some cool battery tech developments are starting to come within the reach of mobile consumer budgets.


Stacked battery cells

One persistent rumour holds that Apple will take the battery tech it developed for the original 12-inch MacBook (and retained for the 2016 version) – whereby contoured, layered battery units are stacked inside the chassis in order to take up every possible inch of space – and use these to squeeze more battery capacity inside the fixed or even reduced volume that will be available in future iPhones.

Apple could even, thanks to the new technology, make more radical changes to the overall design of the iPhone, because its engineers would no longer to base their work on a fixed battery shape. Although the smartphone is such a mature market now that it would take a brave manufacturer to change its essential form – a little like a mad microwave designer inventing one that’s spherical.

Lithium-air batteries

The capacity and efficiency of batteries is sure to increase over the next few years, and may do so dramatically if lithium-oxygen cells (also known as lithium-air) become a reality. As a Nature study (you’ll need to pay to read the full article) explains, Li–O2 batteries offer theoretically far higher lifetimes than the lithium-ion equivalents currently favoured in mobile devices – maybe as much as five times as much, although technological issues remain.

But we’re still thinking in terms of conventional battery principles: batteries than need to be charged up from a mains supply, and then run down, and then need to be charged up again.

Motion charging

A different approach is offered by technologies such as motion charging, a principle that has been used in numerous watches going back many years and was reportedlyconsidered by Apple when putting together the first Apple Watch. It uses kinetic energy from your own movements to charge up a battery cell – the traditional model would be for a wristwatch to harness the power of your arm swinging back and forth throughout the day, but similar methods have been used by wearable phone chargersthat generate sufficient power in this way to give an extra hour of life to the average phone from a mere, er, 5,000 steps.

Okay, so the tech needs improvement to achieve mass-market acceptance,and it would be better still if technology of this kind could be integrated into the body of the phone itself (it’s also vital for it to be able to collect a worthwhile amount of power from the smaller-scale movements experienced by a phone in a pocket or handbag rather than on the end of an arm). But it’s an appealingly sustainable way of collecting some of that energy you’re otherwise wasting on things like ‘moving from one place to another’ and ‘getting fit’.

iPhone 8 rumours: Ampy motion charging battery pack


A similar technology category that seems likely in the foreseeable future to supplement rather than supplant traditional battery-charging methods is solar power. Sunpartner Technologies has developed a lightweight skin/case that wraps around a mobile device and collects energy from light that falls on it. This is designed to work with both indoor and natural light, but is obviously better with the latter; in the right circumstances the tech could add some 10 to 15 percent to battery life.

Apple, of course, has been committing itself to a greener approach for some time now, and a patent awarded in 2015 demonstrates this strategy in action.

The patent suggests that Apple is planning to build solar cells underneath the touchscreen on smartphones in future. The panel would recharge during the day and you wouldn’t need to plug your phone into the socket any more. Good for the planet, convenient for us. And while unlikely to appear as early as 2016’s iPhone 7, this could easily be ready for the big reveal when the iPhone 8 takes its bow in 2018.

Energy harvesting

Finally, energy-harvesting technology exists right now that can recapture energy emitted from your phone in the form of radio waves (the wasted ones, not the ones essential to communication) and then feed it back into the battery. This isn’t a long-term solution: some energy will inevitably be lost through emitted waves alone, and you’ve got all the power being used running the internal components and lighting up the screen, among other issues. But it means your battery runs down slower – 25 to 30 percent, the makers say.

These three in their present form – niche, semi-experimental, relatively costly, non-integrated, offering significant but not experience-changing increases to battery life and just generally a bit of a faff – are not enormously appealing to the average smartphone owner. But if we jump ahead 10 years, maybe less, imagine an iPhone with all three (and similar related tech) built discreetly into the case: harvesting energy from your bodily movements, from ambient light, and from the phone’s own emitted radio waves. To the extent that battery life ceases to be a concern – to the extent, perhaps, where mobile batteries become self-sustaining. What a thought.


iPhone 8 and beyond: Durable design

iPhones are that lethal combination of expensive and fragile that results in so much consumer heartache. The result is that each iPhone owner has to make their own deal with the devil: either wrapping it in a robust case, thereby masking the handsome design that they paid all that money for in the first place, or risk pavement damage every time they take the thing out of a pocket.

This may not be the case in the future.


iPhone screens are already far tougher than your average piece of glass (they’re made of a proprietary material called Gorilla Glass), but they do sometimes crack or even shatter when dropped. Sapphire screens would be more resistant still, and Apple is already using sapphire in the display of the Apple Watch: it’s possible that the company is now ready to import this material into its smartphone line-up.

Rumoured plans to rely on an Apple-backed sapphire plant in Arizona (which had the capacity to manufacture 200 million 5-inch iPhone displays per year) fell through. But more recent reports suggest that long-term Apple supplier Foxconn is gearing up to build its own sapphire plant in Taiwan at a cost of $2.6bn.


iPhone 8 rumours: Sapphire glass

Project Phire

Corning, the company that makes Gorilla Glass, responded to the looming threat of sapphire glass in early 2015 with the announcement of an ultra-hardened composite material codenamed Project Phire.

James Clappin, president of Corning Glass Technologies, told investors: “We told you last year that sapphire was great for scratch performance but didn’t fare well when dropped. So we created a product that offers the same superior damage resistance and drop performance of Gorilla Glass 4 with scratch resistance that approaches sapphire.”

Apple never discusses the materials it uses for iPhone screens, but it’s great news for consumers that suppliers are jousting to provide the best and most durable screen glass.



Sapphire glass is already being used on the non-Sport models of the Apple Watch, and Project Phire appears to be in a reasonably advanced state of development, but we’re getting closer to the realms of science-fiction.

Graphite, the material used in standard pencils, is made up of stacks of sheets of carbon, each one only a single atom thick. This is why it’s so good for writing: the layers naturally slide off on to the paper.

But graphene is a different matter. Graphene is what you get if you’re clever enough to isolate one of the layers in graphite, leaving you with a substance that’s effectively two-dimensional. It’s the thinnest substance known to man, about a million times thinner than a human hair, and for that matter quite possibly the strongest (it’s 100 times stronger than steel) and a phenomenally good electrical conductor – 1,000 times better than copper. Oh, and it’s virtually transparent, too.

All of which makes graphene an exciting prospect for tech manufacturers. Most obviously, it would make for a tremendously durable coating material for the screen (and would lend itself to bendable displays, too) or indeed any part of the device; but it could really appear in almost any of the sections of this article. Graphene would be a superior replacement for silicon in processor chips, or could be used to make more efficient batteries and solar cells. It’s marvellous stuff.

We’re also pleased to report that graphene is British – sort of. It was discovered by the Soviet-born physicist Andre Geim at the University of Manchester, where it continues to be studied. (Entertainingly, Geim is the only scientist so far to be awarded both a Nobel and an Ig Nobel prize.)

If you’d like to read more about graphene, I strongly recommend the New Yorker’s article on the subject.

Viscoelastic material

Let’s move on from the screen and talk about new durable materials for the rest of the iPhone.

How about a bit of drop-resistance? Based on patent activity, Apple is devising a viscoelastic material that would absorb impacts. The material would cover Apple devices and make them survive drops far better. The patent could make sense in all of Apple’s mobile devices and laptops, but the iPhone is the obvious area to begin.

Flexible iPhone

In January 2015 Apple was awarded a patent that suggests that the company is investigating the idea of a flexible iPhone (and we’re not talking about the Bendgate kind).

The patent suggests that, by making the iPhone flexible, Apple could unlock a new range of controls: the user could open an app by bending the device in a particular way, for example, or use the flexibility to control a game. It’s an intriguing if seemingly far-fetched concept.

Additionally, a flexible iPhone flexible ought to be more resistant to impacts and therefore more durable. But we’ll discuss a key element in the idea of a flexible iPhone – a screen that can bend without breaking – in the screen tech section.

Waterproof components

The materials we’ve discussed so far are primarily aimed at surviving impact damage, but almost as common a problem for iPhone owners is water damage. One of our most popular articles is a tutorial explaining how to dry out an iPhone that’s got wet: it’s a distressingly common thing to happen to a device that costs several hundred pounds and contains important data.

For this reason readers and pundits frequently speculate on the possibility that future iPhones will be waterproof. Indeed, the most recent generation of iPhone models are the most waterproof yet; but we still wouldn’t be pleased if the iPhone 6s fell in a paddling pool.

Well, iPhones in the near future could be waterproof without sacrificing their looks – as is currently the case, with the best will in the world, when packing a mobile device in a waterproof case.

A patent spotted in March 2015 indicates that Apple is working to make the internal components of the iPhone waterproof using a protective coating, preventing them from being damaged in the event that liquid manages to make its way beneath the chassis.

Bezel-free design

On 17 May 2016, Apple filed a patent to have a bezel-free device. In the future, we could see a bezel-free device, which would definitely turn a few heads.

An image render and concept by Marek Weidlich shows us how the iPhone might look like if it were to have no bezels. The conceptual idea looks great and would show that Apple is still innovating in the smartphone space.

iPhone 8 - Bezel


And while we’re on the subject of waterproofing…

A patent published on 12 November 2015 suggests a peculiar but rather appealing solution to the waterlogging issue: a mechanism that lets an iPhone dry itself by pumping liquid out through its speaker grills.

iPhone 7 release date rumour: Water expelling patent


“The embodiments described herein are directed to an acoustic module that is configured to remove all or a portion of a liquid that has accumulated within a cavity of the acoustic modules,” the patent’s summary reads.

The concept is centred around modules within the speaker cavities that can be made hydrophobic to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the charge applied to them: when liquid is detected, charges would be applied across the various modules in such a way that the liquid would be moved across the modules and ultimately expelled from the cavity.

iPhone 8 and beyond: Screen developments

The screen is an iPhone’s centrepiece and crowning glory: the medium via which you interact with your phone and your phone tells you about the world. iPhones don’t historically tend to have the best screen resolution (despite the claims made on behalf of its proprietary Retina screen rating), but they are solidly sharp and highly responsive – and occasionally Apple evens adds new features, such as 3D Touch and Night Shift.

Here’s where we see the iPhone screen heading in the next few years.

OLED screen

A company named Applied Materials, which already works with Apple, has dropped strong hints about ramping display demand from the company heading towards 2017, and this has been taken as evidence for the iPhone 8 incorporating an OLED screen.

“Last week Applied Materials reported an almost fourfold leap in orders for equipment to make displays, an early sign producers are retooling their manufacturing to meet Apple’s demand for a new kind of organic light-emitting diode, or OLED, screen,” reports Bloomberg.

“This is going to be sustainable growth,” said Applied Materials CEO Gary Dickerson, mysteriously. “We all know who the leader is in terms of mobile products.”

The OLED iPhone rumour has been knocking around for a while; in December 2015 it was predicted that OLED would come to the iPhone line in 2018 as a result of a partnership between Apple and Japan Display.

Note that, according to the current trajectory, 2017’s new Apple smartphones would actually be the iPhone 7s and 7s Plus, not the iPhone 8 – although many of us have been saying for years that Apple should ditch those ultra-modest ‘S’ updates.

3D display…

An iPhone in the near future could come with a 3D display, according to Economic Daily News, which claims that Apple supply chain partner TPK is working on a project that relates to “naked eye 3D screen” – in other words, a 3D screen that doesn’t require glasses to see. Having to pop on a pair of 3D specs every time you use the phone would be a buzzkill.

…or hologram cells

But 3D is very 2009, isn’t it? We’d like to see Apple go a step beyond and really capture our imagination with a hologram display, able to project the screen image as a three-dimensional hologram you can view from different angles and even interact with. You might have to wait a while for this one.

At the moment about the best you can manage from a consumer smartphone is a ‘holographic effect’, based on eye-tracking technology. Not quite what we’re looking for, but still fun:

Flexible or curved screen

Apple’s Patent 9,146,590 refers to an “electronic device with wraparound display”, and describes a curved screen that allows for more screen elements to be displayed without making the device significantly bigger. (Remember that the illustrations rarely represent what the designer has in mind. In theory the display could wrap entirely around the device, or at least extend over one edge like the Note Edge.)

iPhone 7 release date rumours: Wraparound screen

While the patent talks about a “flexible display assembly”, it’s important to note that this isn’t a patent for a bendable screen: the flexible portion of the display is attached to the interior surface of the curved transparent housing, which “provides a rigid support structure that prevents deformation”.

But true flexibility can’t be ruled out in the medium to long term. There are rumours, indeed, that Samsung could be making the display for the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus, and that these would be flexible OLED screens – ET News says that Samsung is investing billions in new factories and equipment to keep up with Apple’s display orders for its next iPhones. And bendy display proofs of concept have been common for several years.

We think such a radical step is more likely to come to fruition closer to the end of the decade, particularly for a company as cautious as Apple when it comes to updating the designs of established and successful products.

Sidewall displays

Concept illustration by Michael Shanks.

In May 2014, Apple was granted a patent for “Electronic devices with sidewall displays,” which could lead to future iPhones with displays around the sides and edges as well as on the front. The patent suggests that the sidewall displays could be an extension of the main touchscreen, and they could have interactive or touch-sensitive portions.

Apple suggests that sidewall screen space could be used to display app icons, or for slide-to-unlock functionality, music player controls, messaging readout, caller ID, system controls and more.

Samsung has actually released the Galaxy Note Edge, which has a display that wraps around one edge of the smartphone. You can find out more about the Galaxy Note Edge here.

Touch ID display

Apple is even investigating including the fingerprint scanner into the display of a smartphone or tablet, taking the technology even further. In fact, Apple filed a patent describing a Touch ID display back in January 2013.

Scan display

This technology means that you could place your finger on the display to scan it, instead of the Home Button. We’re not sure if this technology was an original variation to the Home Button scanner found on the iPhone 5S, or if it’ll be combined with the Haptics & Tactile technology to remove the Home Button on a future iPhone and replace it with a virtual on-screen button.

The patent describes a touchscreen display with a fingerprint-sensing layer that could be used to introduce advanced multi-user support.

For example, Apple could use the fingerprint sensing display to only allow particular users to open certain apps. This could be useful for those with children who like to explore the iPad, for example.

Additionally, Apple could take the display even further. It could be used in conjunction with a piano app, for example, to teach users the correct finger placement for the instrument.

Accident-free buttons

Accidental touchscreen inputs are so commonplace that we actually added the phrase ‘Pocket dialling’ to our tech jargon dictionary. Well, developments over the next few years could put a stop to that.

In May 2014, a patent titled “Configurable Buttons for Electronic Devices” described a touch-sensitive button designed to prevent accidental inputs. The patent covers a physical button that also has a touch sensor, which would know when a user’s finger is touching it rather than another object in a bag.

The buttons highlighted in Apple’s patent include the power, sleep, menu, volume and multipurpose buttons that are physical on most devices and therefore susceptible to accidental input.

Apple’s Touch ID home button uses similar technology to the technology described in this patent, though it’s also used as a security measure thanks to a fingerprint scanning authentication method.

iPhone 8 and beyond: Camera

The iPhone is one of the most widely used cameras in the world. What’s in store for this vital element of the iPhone of the future?

Light Splitter

Lucky iPhone owners of the future may get their hands on a feature currently offered only by premium video cameras.

In March 2015 Apple was granted a patent for a “digital camera with light splitter”. Its project is to create a light splitter system (which for now exists only in high-end video camera) small enough to fit in an iPhone.

In essence, a light splitter system consists of a cube that splits received light into three colours: red, green and blue. The cube provides three image sensors, each of which receives one colour component. In recent iPhones, the camera system is such that its pixels capture the three component colours which end up occupying only a single image sensor; this means that they can fill only one third of the image sensor and colours are not as accurate as they could be.

The light splitter system would be a big coup for Apple. Its iPhone would be able to capture high-quality pictures with more precise colours, especially at night.

‘Super-resolution’ photos

Apple seems to be keen to improve the camera capabilities of its iOS devices, and one patent published by USPTO in May 2014 suggests we could soon see iPhones that are able to capture “Super-resolution” photos thanks to optical image stabilisation, which is already a feature of the iPhone 6 Plus.

The patent describes a system that takes a series of photographs at slightly different angles and stitches them together to create a ‘super resolution’ photograph.

Apple doesn’t suggest a device would capture every photo this way. Instead, the user would have the option to turn super-resolution mode on, much like HDR and Panorama modes.

Several rumours suggest that Apple plans to introduce a feature like this with an iPhone in the near future, with reports pointing to a ‘DSLR-quality’ capability that would represent the biggest camera jump in iPhone upgrade history.

Apple iPhone camera patents: Interchangeable camera lenses

Apple is also investigating the possibility of making interchangeable iPhone camera lenses.

In January 2014, the company was issued two patents that describe methods of attaching camera modules to devices such as the iPhone and iPad.

The first patent, titled “Back panel for a portable electronic device with different camera lens options“, describes a portable electronic device that has a removable case that would allow camera attachments such as wide-angle or fisheye lenses.

The second patent, titled “Magnetic add-on lenses with alignment ridge,” offers an alternative method of attaching new camera lenses to the iPhone using magnets.

Refocusable photographs

A patent published by the USPTO in November 2013 reveals that Apple is interested in technology that will allow users to refocus a photograph after it’s been taken. Such technology is already used in the Lytro camera, with which you can take a photograph and later choose how you want that photo to be focused.

Some of Apple’s rivals including the HTC One M8 have camera features that allow you to achieve similar results, so it’s certainly a potential feature for the next iPhone.

iPhone 8 and beyond: Security & privacy

Apple has come out strongly in favour of user privacy, as was demonstrated in its recent tussle with the FBI in the US. But what technoloigcal developments can it offer to back this up?

Face-detection passwords

In December 2014, USPTO awarded Apple a patent relating to a “personal computing device control using face detection and recognition”.

Current iPhones and iPads can be unlocked using just your fingerprint, thanks to the Touch ID sensor. But with this patent, future iPhones and other devices could be unlocked using facial recognition: effectively, your face becomes your password.

Attack detection mode

In March 2014, USPTO published an Apple patent filing that could be used to protect iPhone owners when they’re in distress.

The patent, titled “Mobile emergency attack and failsafe detection”, describes a feature that combines software and hardware to create an emergency services request system that’s build in to a smartphone such as the iPhone.

Using the iPhone’s sensors, the software could detect when the user is in an emergency situation such as a physical attack or car crash and automatically call for help. Users can set a predefined set of contact numbers, or use the iPhone’s automatic service to call local 999 numbers. It can also make use of the GPS to detect the location of the user and call the contact that’s closest.

To avoid an abundance of 999 calls being placed unnecessarily, the service has a number of modes and measures in place, such as audible warnings that a call is about to be made.

Macworld poll: What do you want from your future iPhone?

It’s your turn. Which of these ideas appeals to you, or are you looking for something else entirely? Have you say in our poll.



Macworld (2016) iPhone 8 and beyond: Future smartphone developments, from graphene and lithium-air batteries to holograms, OLED and motion charging | ‘Super cycle’ iPhone 8 to follow ‘muted’ iPhone 7 | Predictions for iPhone 7s, iPhone 8 & more. Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2016).

Prototype App

My very first prototype with Popapp

Colour Inspiration

Assumably, my app will incorporate colours. As mentioned in a previous post, red is an appetising colour. In combination with the mouth logo it could be associated with love, sex or erotic. To clearly distinguish from that, I will also try out other colours and combinations.

To get some inspiration, I’ve been to Etel Adnan’s The Weight of the World Exhibition at Serpentine Galleries. She uses a lot of different colour combinations.

The use of geometric shapes in combination with bold colours results in artpieces that might have a graphical approach.




In the bookshop, I found some inspirational colour combinations and interesting typographical  designs. My favorite colour and type inspiring pictures can be found below.


Exhibitionism: The Rolling Stones

The reason I visited Exhibitionism at Saatchi Gallery is the iconic logo of The Rolling Stones.


After discussing my current working status with my peers in the “Peer Interim Crit” two days ago, they really encouraged me to not give up on my second concept as it has potential. Together, we discussed the problems the logo incorporated:
– too cosmetic
– too sex-toy-packaging-alike
– font choice works poorly
– too rounded edges take away the futuristic feeling

The logo is not designed yet. However, in three minutes time we developed the logo to a slightly better version (from left to right on photo below). Even if it is not near to be finished, it helped to understand the problem and to know how to develop it from now on.
Bildschirmfoto 2016-06-10 um 02.01.31


The general idea is to combine a mouth with a pentagon. We eat with our mouth, the pentagon stands for the 5 human senses as eating is one of the few activities that incorporates all senses (such as cooking).



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The versatility of the Rolling Stones logo is remarkable. Over the years it became iconic, like the band. My logo, should not look that rebellious and no symbol for erotic or sex. This will be one of the things that I will have to keep in mind when designing the logo.


Exhibitionism: The Rolling Stones (2016)  [Exhibition]. Saatchi Gallery. 5 April – 4 September 2016



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